Comparison between Centralized Splitting and Distributed Splitting in PON network

Passive optical network (PON) based FTTH access network is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises network architecture in which passive optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises. The optical fiber splitter can be placed in different locations of the PON based FTTH network, which involves using centralized (single-stage) or distributed (multi-stage) splitting configurations in the distribution portion of the FTTH network


In centralized splitting networks, all PON splitters are located in one closure, which will maximize OLT utilization and provide a single point of access for troubleshooting. Since optical splitters must be terminated to the customer either through individual splices or connectors, the cost of distribution cables will be very high. 


In distributed splitting networks, the PON splitters are located in two or more different closures, which will minimize the amount of optical fibers that needs to be deployed to provide service. But it may create inefficient use of OLT PON ports and may increase the testing and turn-up time of customers. 


Below shows the advantages and disadvantages of centralized splitting and distributed splitting networks


FTTH Splitting TypesAdvantagesDisadvantages
Centralized SplittingOLT utilization (pay as you grow)More distribution fiber
Future proof & easy to change technologyLarger network elements in the OSP
Monitoring & maintenancePossibly additional infrastructure
Distributed SplittingLower capital expense for customer connectionMore actives and more splitters
Reduces splitter cabinet requirementsLess flexible network
Flexibility in split ratios in serving areaFewer monitoring & maintenance capabilities


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